Toward the end of the s, many angry American Indians used direct action to bring attention to their concerns. Many young, college-educated Native Americans insisted on being called "Native Americans" rather than American Indians, and some adopted the term "red power," an echo of Stokely Carmichael's concept of "black power.
AIM promoted self-sufficiency for Native Americans, publicized the plight of Native Americans on reservations; and focused on problems of alienation, alcoholism, poverty, unemployment and the weakening of Indian cultural bonds.
The organization sported an upside-down American flag as a symbol of its anger at the crimes of the United States against the Indian nations. Search term. Ronald L. Trosper Introduction This chapter uses census data to describe changes in poverty and income on 23 Indian reservations over a year period, Data The national censuses of , , and allow comparisons over time using data that were collected in a relatively consistent manner for 23 reservations.
Descriptive Results Table provides national data on the key measures for all Americans, whites, blacks, and American Indians. Comparisons of Poverty Rates The first five columns of Table report changes in the percentage of families in poverty on each of the reservations during the two decades and Comparisons of Income The last five columns of Table report the changes in per capita income on the 23 reservations for the period under consideration. Discussion What factors were responsible for the above complex patterns of changing poverty rates?
Spatial Variations in Income and Poverty The data in Table show that reservations varied tremendously in their poverty rates and levels of per capita income in each of the years under consideration.
Business Cycle Factors Because of cycles in the levels of economic activity, any comparison of particular years may be distorted by the national business cycle. Migration and Changes in Self-identification Two of the most important candidate trends for explaining the changes in poverty rates are migration and changes in self-identification, which cannot be distinguished in census data. Possible Demographic Explanations Two other trends that might be associated with changes in poverty and in per capita income are age and persons per family.
Possible Political Explanations President Nixon initiated tribal self-determination in , although the law was not changed until Public Law was adopted in Changes in Federal Expenditures Federal spending priorities changed from preservation of the social safety net during the s to military spending and tax cuts during the Reagan years after Increases in Wage Inequality One other factor that might contribute to the turn-around in poverty levels on reservations is the general increase in inequality of the American economy.
Changes in Gambling and Casinos as a Possible Explanation Because gaming has become important on reservations, two questions arise. Multivariate Analysis Multivariate analysis can help sort out the influences of the various factors just discussed. Conclusion Because of the important role played by federal expenditures on Indian reservations, it is plausible that reductions in real federal budget expenditures on Indian programs and components of the social safety net contributed to the sharp increase in Indian poverty in the s.
References Bureau of Economic Analysis, U. Department of Commerce Business Statistics: Washington, D. Government Printing Office. Christiansen, E. International Gaming and Wagering Business 11 7 International Gaming and Wagering Business 15 7 Cordiero, E. The economics of bingo: Factors influencing the success of bingo operations on American Indian reservations. Cornell, editor; and J. Kalt, editor.
Cornell, S. Gil-Swedberg Sociohistorical factors in institutional efficacy: Economic development in three American Indian cases. Economic Development and Cultural Change 43 2 Kalt Reloading the dice: Improving the chances for economic development on American Indian reservations.
Geisler, C. Land and poverty in the United States. Land Economics 71 1 Harrison, B. Bluestone New York: Basic Books. Kalt, J. Cornell The redefinition of property rights in American Indian reservations: A comparative analysis of Native American economic development.
Legters, editor; and F. Lyden, editor. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Levy, F. Murnane Journal of Economic Literature 30 3 McDonnell, J. The Dispossession of The American Indians Nelson, C. Levels of and changes in the distribution of U.
Bergstand, editor. Amsterdam: North-Holland. Otis, D. Sacks, J. Larrain Macroeconomics in the Global Economy. Snipp, C. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. They held the island for more than a year and a half, despite an ongoing blockage and efforts by the government to turn off electricity and all incoming phone calls to the island.
Navigation in the Bay grew difficult. In January , two oil tankers collided near Golden Gate Bridge, dumping , gallons of crude oil in the water. Public opinion and support began to turn. By late spring, the dwindling number of Indians had no fresh water, no electricity and little food. On June 11, , a combined force of federal marshals, Coast Guard and FBI agents removed the last 15 people, including 5 children, ending the occupation.
The legacy of this occupation was more than considerable. In its midst, President Nixon declared in an end to the federal policy of Indian Termination. Nixon introduced 22 pieces of legislation to support and expand Indian self-determination. Big Bend Rancheria. Big Cypress Reservation. Big Lagoon Rancheria. Big Pine Reservation. Big Sandy Rancheria. Big Valley Rancheria. Bishop Reservation. Blackfeet Indian Reservation.
Blue Lake Rancheria. Bois Forte Reservation. Bridgeport Reservation. Brighton Reservation. Burns Paiute Indian Colony. Cabazon Reservation. Cahuilla Reservation. Campbell Ranch. Campo Indian Reservation. Capitan Grande Reservation. Carson Colony. Cattaraugus Reservation. Cedarville Rancheria. Celilo Village. Chehalis Reservation. Chemehuevi Reservation. Cheyenne River Reservation.
Chicken Ranch Rancheria. Coconut Creek Trust Land. Cocopah Reservation. Coeur d'Alene Reservation. Cold Springs Rancheria. Colorado River Indian Reservation. Colusa Rancheria. Colville Reservation. Coos, Lower Umpqua, and Siuslaw Reservation. Coquille Reservation. Cortina Indian Rancheria. Coushatta Reservation. Cow Creek Reservation. Coyote Valley Reservation.
Crow Creek Reservation. Crow Reservation. Dresslerville Colony. Dry Creek Rancheria. Duck Valley Reservation. Duckwater Reservation. Eastern Cherokee Reservation. Elk Valley Rancheria. Elko Colony. Ely Reservation. Enterprise Rancheria. Ewiiaapaayp Reservation. Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Colony. Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Reservation. Flandreau Reservation. Flathead Reservation.
Fond du Lac Reservation. Forest County Potawatomi Community. Fort Apache Reservation. Fort Belknap Reservation. Fort Berthold Reservation. Fort Bidwell Reservation. Fort Hall Reservation. Fort Independence Reservation. Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation. Fort Mojave Reservation. Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Fort Pierce Reservation. Fort Sill Apache Indian Reservation.
Fort Yuma Indian Reservation. Gila River Indian Reservation. Golden Hill Paugussett Reservation. Goshute Reservation. Grand Portage Reservation. Grand Ronde Community. All of these are driven by the rampant poverty and lack of economic opportunities available on tribal lands.
These are indicators of a much more complicated problem rooted in structural violence. The US Bureau of Indian Affairs, set with the responsibility of managing tribal affairs to their benefit, has been criticized with having done everything but that. Often times, the mismanagement of assets and land ownership issues, and complicated environmental and economic regulations, have worked to discourage new development and investments. The Major Religions In India.The Hopi Reservation's increased poverty rate from to may have been influenced by the division of the Navajo-Hopi Joint Use Area, which occurred in In , the Gila River Reservation and the Papago Reservation tied for the highest poverty rate at percent. The pattern of changes among reservations is complicated.