Favorite music, however, significantly boosts baseline brain activation. Given the communications restrictions, a positive response to a particular genre and specific song is typically not as obvious or dramatic as for the resident who loved reggae.
In Wisconsin, as in Texas, direct care staff play a key role in this process. One resident, for example, would get bored unless her playlist had a lot of variety. She was just a lot more interactive, whereas if the staff said she got bored, she was falling asleep with her playlist.
About a third of the long-term residents participate, and direct care staff are a key source of referrals. At first we just mixed it into his playlist. He can verbalize and kept asking for it, so we eventually made a playlist of just that song, with different versions. A small team, including a music therapist, was responsible for carrying out the program at both sites, but buy-in from direct care staff was essential.
We chose leads among the direct care staff who were more interested and encouraged them to help train other staff. Thirteen participated in the pilot. We wanted to see how we did with that population and how it fit into their daily activities, what they wanted to do, and the flow of the home and when they would be able to implement the program.
Measuring outcomes was also key at both locations. After 12 weeks, we saw a 52 percent increase in cognitive engagement when listening to personalized playlists for 15 to 30 minutes daily. Tracee reports similar outcomes at SWC. After pilot participants listened to their music, observed negative moods were cut in half, and positive moods increased eight-fold. Participants were nearly twice as socially engaged after hearing their personalized playlists, and a third were much calmer.
When an individual was communicating more by pointing or facial expressions, the staff loved it, because they could understand what the individual wanted.
He cites the example of a woman who needed a modified barium swallow test to determine the right diet texture to keep her safe when eating. And you will have these wonderful moments when you can connect with that individual and that individual connects with you in a deeper way.
I encourage state leaders to think outside the box and offer the program to all service recipients. Whatever the presenting medical condition and associated complications of recovery, there is one major risk of hospitalization for all older adults, regardless of diagnosis: delirium.
Some experience hallucinations, agitation, even belligerence, or so-called hyperactive delirium; others become withdrawn, lethargic and have difficulty waking, a condition known as hypoactive delirium. All struggle with confusion, a sense of disorientation and a disconnect with reality. Although those symptoms of delirium have been recognized by medical practitioners since the days of Hippocrates , the causes are still unknown.
So does music. Hammond considers therapeutic use of music to be an essential part of the delirium-prevention mix. In Scottsdale, Arizona, Dr. For her doctoral thesis as a Hartford Scholar at Arizona Statue University, Johnson focused her research on how preferred music affected older patients in trauma centers. There is no sleep, no rest. What can we do to help ease their discomfort? I started to look at music. Everyone can relate to that. The Effect of Irradiation on Vegetables.
The goal of this science fair project is to investigate the effect of irradiation on the germination and growth of vegetables, such as the tomato plant. We enable strictly necessary cookies to give you the best possible experience on Education.
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If the mother finds a certain piece of music stressful, the baby's heart rate goes up. So the fetus is echoing the mother's response to the quality of the music. Woodward is convinced that we begin learning about music even before birth. She points out that even when music that can penetrate the womb is absent, the fetus is surrounded by those natural rhythms of the body — heartbeat and pulse and breath. Copyright by Elena Mannes.
Reprinted by permission of Bloomsbury Publishing. Patel and Elena Mannes. Your purchase helps support NPR programming. Accessibility links Skip to main content Keyboard shortcuts for audio player. NPR Shop. Author Interviews. Facebook Twitter Flipboard Email. June 1, PM ET. Heard on Talk of the Nation. I have asked this q on another thread too, it is all rather baffling that they judge there to be no market for these units anymore. Your choice of such devices at a price John Martin Novice Member.
John Martin said:. The uniti doesn't but the HDX does. Sorry John, I think I'm getting mixed up. The HDX has a cd "ripper" the uniti is just a player. Neither has a recorder.
In particular, there is an ongoing debate in the field of music and cognitive stimulation on whether music can be used to enhance verbal memory. On the one hand, music is a complex auditory stimulus which evolves through time and which has a strong emotional impact Blood and Zatorre, ; Salimpoor et al.
As such, music can provide considerable additional cues which are likely to enrich the encoding of an event. In the last 20 years, several studies were conducted in order to understand when and how music can have a positive effect on memory.
Research on western music indicates that musical training Chan et al. In , Wallace showed that text is better recalled when heard as a song rather than speech, suggesting that musical context can assist in learning and retrieving words. In clinical settings, short i. Additionally, verbal material is more efficiently retrieved when sung than spoken in multiple sclerosis Thaut et al.
Such evidence suggests that music provides contextual cues that contribute to episodic memory processes. Episodic memory Tulving, enables conscious recollection of personal experiences and events from the past Wheeler et al. Encoding is a crucial aspect of episodic memory and it is tightly related to the contribution of contextual factors such as location, time, prevailing conditions, and converging multisensory and emotional stimuli Eich, ; Hamann, ; Kensinger and Corkin, ; Hupbach et al.
Neuroimaging and behavioral data have clearly shown that the capacity to retrieve correct information depends on its successful encoding e. It has been shown that enriching the context of encoding through, e. It is therefore possible that the greatest value of music for memory is to provide mnemonic processes with a particularly rich and helpful context during the encoding phase of episodic memory.
Memory encoding and retrieval processes are supported by a broad brain network that involves the medio-temporal and posterior parietal areas, the hippocampus, and the prefrontal cortex PFC , the latter being particularly important for episodic memory Spaniol et al. In particular, it has been shown that the DLPFC, mainly in the left hemisphere, plays a crucial role for organizational, associative Murray and Ranganath, ; Ranganath, and semantic Innocenti et al.
As discussed by Blumenfeld and Ranganath , DLPFC activation seems to be more specifically sensitive to demands for organizational processing and it may support long term memory by building associations among items that are active in memory. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy fNIRS is an optical neuroimaging technique that can non-invasively monitor cortical tissue oxygenation oxygenated-O 2 Hb and deoxygenated-HHb hemoglobin concentration changes during cognitive, motor, and sensory stimulation Jobsis, ; Ferrari and Quaresima, In the last 20 years, the use of fNIRS in cognitive neuroscience has constantly increased Ferrari and Quaresima, In the field of music cognition, a few fNIRS studies were recently conducted in order to investigate the emotional response to music Moghimi et al.
However, no fNIRS study has yet looked at a possible role of music in memory encoding. The previous fNIRS studies that have documented facilitating factors on memory encoding, e. These evidence suggest that facilitatory cues e. The critical new point of the present study was to assess whether the presence of background music during the encoding of verbal material results in different memory-specific cortical patterns of activations than episodic encoding in silence.
Our hypothesis is that music may enhance verbal encoding by providing a helpful context which can facilitate organizational, associative, and semantic processes. If so, such an effect of music on memory encoding processes should be linked to both behavioral performance and PFC activity. More specifically, we consider a facilitatory effect of music during verbal encoding should result in a better recognition performance and deactivation of DLPFC activity during the music encoding condition compared to the silent condition.
Twenty-two young healthy students at University of Burgundy 11 female, mean age All the participants were right-handed, non-musicians, French-native speakers, and reported having normal or corrected-to-normal vision.
None were taking medication known to affect the central nervous system. Informed written consent was obtained from all participants prior to taking part in the experiment. Subjects were seated in a chair in front of a computer in a quiet, dim room.
Each participant was subjected to a memory encoding task while their PFC activation was monitored using fNIRS neuroimaging and then behaviorally tested in a retrieval task. After the eight fNIRS probe-set was adjusted on the forehead scalp overlaying the DLPFC see fNIRS section below for a description and the in-ear headphones inserted, subjects were informed that they would be presented with different lists of words with two different auditory contexts: music or silence.
They were asked to memorize both the lists of words and the context in which words were encoded. They were randomly divided into 6 lists of words 7 words each list, 21 words for each encoding condition , equated for word length and occurrence frequency. In each block, seven words were displayed successively in the presence of a music or silence auditory context. The audio stimulation started 15 s before the first word was displayed, continued during the sequential display of words, and ended 15 s after the last word.
Words displayed in each block were paced at 4 s per word, amounting to 28 s for the sequential presentation of seven words. Each block therefore had a duration of 58 s 15 s context, 28 s words, 15 s context , and was followed by a 30 s rest silent between each block Figure 1.
During the rest periods subjects were instructed to try to relax and not to think about the task any longer; in contrast, during the context-only phases of the blocks i. The entire encoding phase, together with fNIRS recording, took about 10 min.
Representation of one block of encoding. Each block consisted in 15 s of context alone music or silence in the earphones , then 28 s of context and words encoding seven words for each block, 4 s for each word and then again 15 s of context alone. Subjects were then tested for item and source memory recognition.
We used item-memory and source-memory tasks Glisky et al. The retrieval test included the 42 words presented previously, together with 42 new words which were lure items matched for word length and occurrence frequency. The presentation of task instructions and stimuli as well as the recording of behavioral responses were controlled by the E-Prime software Psychology Software Tools, Inc.
Data was acquired at a sampling frequency of 10 Hz. To optimize signal-to-noise ratio during the fNIRS recording, the eight optodes were masked from ambient light by a black plastic cap that was kept in contact with the scalp with elastic straps, and all cables were suspended from the ceiling to minimize movement artifacts Cui et al.
During data collection, O 2 Hb and HHb concentration changes were displayed in real time, and the signal quality and the absence of movement artifacts were verified. To examine source memory, we analyzed the proportion of correct source judgments among item-memory hits. A paired t -test was used to compare the item- and source- memory scores between the silence and music conditions. One sample t -tests were used to ascertain that all the scores were significantly above chance.
For each of the eight fNIRS measurement points, the O 2 Hb and HHb signals were first low-pass filtered to eliminate task-irrelevant systemic physiological oscillations fifth order digital Butterworth filter with cutoff frequency 0. In order to determine the amount of activation during the encoding phase for the two conditions, data in each of the six experimental blocks was baseline corrected using the mean of the O 2 Hb and HHb signals during the first 5 s of each block i.
We then sample-to-sample averaged i. Although the increases in O 2 Hb are visible bilaterally during the silence condition especially in bilateral channels 1 and 2 as shown by post hoc LSD Fisher comparisons , together with a decrease in HHb in particular for left channels 1, 2 and right channel 2 , the music condition was associated with a strong bilateral decrease of O 2 Hb underlined by significant LSD Fisher post hoc comparisons especially for bilateral channels 3 and 4.
The present study shows that a background musical context during the encoding of verbal material modulates the activation of the DLPFC and, at the same time, facilitates the retrieval of the encoded material.
Despite a few recent studies e. However, most of these studies had remained on a behavioral level.Following the labels Silver Recordings and Respect Wax (active ), Koen Lybaert startet U-Cover in The electronic label was based in Belgium and remained active until , when Koen Lybaert decided to focus only on his painting career. It had several scorenabmespocapp.reidrexlicilimalindisctextdersticon.cog: Bain Music Project.