In any case, they will not automatically freeze. They have more important things to worry about than a coat. Let's take a moment to cover explosions, because any time a story is set in space, there's going to be an explosion at some point. I didn't research that fact. I simply know it. So what does an explosion actually look like in space?
Well, let's start off small and look at how fire burns in the absence of gravity. Here on Earth, air weighs differently depending on its temperature. Hot air rises. This is why flames themselves look like they're rising, since they're burning air as it's floating away.
However, in space, hot air is no heavier than cold air, so you end up with an interesting phenomenon where flames burn as spheres. So what would you see? Well, depending on the size of the ship or, more specifically, how much atmosphere it was carrying , you would see a flash of a spherical light that would disappear very quickly.
Then you might see larger pieces of debris. Really, since there's no oxygen around to burn, it would be fairly unimpressive compared to what we usually see in Star Wars. Further, because of this lack of atmosphere, there would be no shockwave, and all your character would hear is the sound of debris hitting his ship. I don't remember when I first learned that space pictures are tricky, but it was a bit of a bummer.
Look at this gorgeous photo of the pillars of the Eagle Nebula , for instance. You probably already know that almost every colorful picture you see of space is manipulated to show false color.
This makes the pictures a bit more pleasing to the eye, but also helps scientists get a better grasp on what they're seeing. Second, each pillar of that nebula is actually several light-years long. At this distance, it looks like a cloud, but it's still pretty close to a vacuum out there. You probably wouldn't even know you were flying through it. In addition, black holes are invisible and asteroid belts provide absolutely no hazard to even a blind pilot.
Well, you will see stars in space , and they will be beautiful. The moon landing photographs created a common myth that you couldn't see stars once you hit orbit, but the truth is that most stars simply aren't bright enough to pick up in traditional photographs used at the time of the moon landings.
They couldn't get stars to expose out there any better than we can take a Polaroid of them down here. Oh, and don't forget that our own sun is actually white , not yellow. Color is based on the temperature of the star, and many stars actually do emit non-white color which becomes more visible through binoculars.
Bad Astronomy has a good article about this if you're interested. There are a lot of topics I could cover in space, but I tried to keep us focused on a fairly specific topic of the vacuum, which is why this article is a little shorter than my others.
Though this may have limited applicability for any science fiction author who doesn't plan on tossing his or her characters out of an airlock, somebody requested it, and damn if I don't deliver. I also wanted to take this opportunity to thank you for the support I've received for this column. Do you have an idea for my next science-themed article?
I'm taking suggestions! Drop me some topics in the comments, and if I like it, and feel that I either understand or can research it well enough to explain it, your idea can be the next IMOS article.
Experiment debuted at number one on the US Billboard with , album-equivalent units including , pure album sales , making it Brown's first US number-one album, and the third country album to top the chart in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Kane Brown. Brown Berryhill Josh Hoge Phillips. Brown Berryhill McGinn Phillips. Brown Ellis Hoge McGill.
Brown McGill Tom Douglas. All Access. December 29, Archived from the original on December 23, Retrieved December 29, This Figure illustrates the simple relationship between pressure and boiling point: as altitude increases, the pressure of the surrounding air decreases and the boiling point temperature decreases.
Practically speaking, this reduction in pressure is achieved by creating vacuum pressure in the system—remember this for later. Simply stated, it is an indicator of how simply a liquid will boil at a given temperature.
The importance of this property is that it can be mathematically modeled as the Antoine Equation —so that, at any temperature, the vapor pressure of a substance can be identified. Relative Volatility then is a synthesis of the two preceding concepts.
Specifically, in a system of two pure components, at a fixed temperature and pressure, it is a measure of the likelihood of one component to boil, versus another.
The equation in Figure 3 is the most basic mathematical representation of relative volatility, where i and j are the components, and y and x are the vapor and liquid concentration of these components at equilibrium, respectively. The utility of this equation is endless, and it is the essential basis for large scale distillation—indeed, it is the basis of design for petroleum distillation, which is among the most complex and costly processes on the planet.
A discussion of relative volatility, to the extent that it can be used as a basis of design is far beyond the scope of this entry, but its value as a fundamental quality of mixtures should not be disregarded. So, how do these thermodynamic concepts relate to the improvement of a canna extraction process? They are the foundation for understanding the importance of vacuum pressure. An equipment manufacturer might present the example of moles of ethanol at two different pressures, one atmospheric, one at a vacuum pressure—as in system 1 and system 2 below:.
Joined Nov 4, Messages Location I started writing a door stopping wedge of a sci-f. Certainly philosophical and theological, but also just amazing with great characters. Nothing I've read in sci-fi since has come close, leaving me very frustrated truth be told! Joined May 9, Messages 13, Alien encounters while exploring space has been a staple of the field since its inception; so, yes, there is a massive amount of material out there on the subject.
Several of Heinlein's juveniles deal with this, as well as some of his other sf Double Star , Methuselah's Children , etc. Arthur C. Clarke wrote several stories dealing with such encounters; even and its sequels are of this type, not to mention Rendezvous with Rama , certainly one of the most intriguing novels of this subgenre.
And if you're not looking at the actual journey part of the exploration, but simply contact with alien species first us with them on their own planet, then essentially through the eyes of one of their own on ours , James Blish's A Case of Conscience certainly fits the bill. The list goes on and on and on And this doesn't even touch on more recent sf Joined Apr 28, Messages I agree with J. I think the exploration and first contact sections in Peter F. Hamilton's Pandora's Star were the best bit of the book although the rest was still good.
Ken Macleod's Learning the World is interesting inversion of the normal first contact story, featuring an alien astronomer noticing a human spaceship approaching his solar system. I should also mention a very old one, "Old Faithful", by Raymond Z.
Gallun, which features another inversion of sorts His reason? Pure scientific curiosity and a growing empathy for his counterpart here Joined May 8, Messages 3,Oct 20, · In the Vacuum of Space, Sci-Fi RPGs Suck. October 20, May 18, postworldgames. I’m not going to debate your own anecdotal data on why YOUR campaign for Space Rider was so awesome. Good for you. We need more examples of successful scifi campaigns. (A sort of Call of Cthulhu meets X files thing, which I tuned to a more action.