The metal was a laboratory curiosity until Kroll, in , showed that titanium could be produced commercially by reducing titanium tetrachloride with magnesium. This method is largely used for producing the metal today.
The metal can be purified by decomposing the iodide. Titanium, when pure, is a lustrous, white metal. It has a low density, good strength, is easily fabricated, and has excellent corrosion resistance. It is ductile only when it is free of oxygen. Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Titanium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration.
Titanium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Titanium. Isotopes of rhodium. List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases.
Explore our interactive periodic table Periodic Table Element Comparison. Titanium Element 22 of Periodic table is Titanium with atomic number 22, atomic weight How to Locate Titanium on Periodic Table Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. Unit Cell Parameters The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants a , b and c a b c Periodic Table Element Comparison.
List of Elements 1 H - Hydrogen. Atomic Number. Atomic Symbol. Atomic Weight. Group in Periodic Table. Titanium is used in making structure of ships, shafts etc. Titanium is used in making of prosthetic joints for joint replacement therapy , such as hip joint and also as dental implants. Titanium is used in making various electronics including high end cameras, mobiles, and laptops. Nanoparticles of titanium are used as delivery tool for various drugs.
Health Hazards Titanium is a low toxic metal. Isotopes of Titanium There are eighteen isotopes of titanium. Barksdale , p. Greenwood , p. The U. In May , a sale of the seats from Arsenal F. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Chemical element with atomic number For the album by Sky, see Cadmium album.
See also: Category:Cadmium compounds. Main article: Isotopes of cadmium. See also: Category:Cadmium minerals. Main article: Cadmium poisoning. GHS hazard statements. GHS precautionary statements. Pure and Applied Chemistry. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie, 91— in German.
Walter de Gruyter. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Archived from the original on 6 June Retrieved 30 May Advanced Inorganic Chemistry 6th ed.
John Wiley and Sons. Solid state structures of cadmium complexes with relevance to biological systems". Sigel eds. Cadmium: From Toxicology to Essentiality. Metal Ions in Life Sciences.
Radiation Detection and Measurement. Cambridge University Press. Annalen der Physik. Bibcode : AnP Windsor and Newton. Henry C. Science Dictionary. Archived from the original on 18 November Retrieved 24 September Measurement Techniques. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 21 April Retrieved 8 August Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta.
In biological environments, hydrolysis leads to the safe and inert titanium dioxide. Despite these advantages the first candidate compounds failed clinical trials. Further development resulted in the creation of potentially effective, selective, and stable titanium-based drugs. Titanium was discovered in by the clergyman and amateur geologist William Gregor as an inclusion of a mineral in Cornwall , Great Britain.
The currently known processes for extracting titanium from its various ores are laborious and costly; it is not possible to reduce the ore by heating with carbon as in iron smelting because titanium combines with the carbon to produce titanium carbide. Titanium of very high purity was made in small quantities when Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer discovered the iodide, or crystal bar , process in , by reacting with iodine and decomposing the formed vapours over a hot filament to pure metal.
In the s and s, the Soviet Union pioneered the use of titanium in military and submarine applications  Alfa class and Mike class  as part of programs related to the Cold War. Recognizing the strategic importance of titanium,  the U. Department of Defense supported early efforts of commercialization. Throughout the period of the Cold War, titanium was considered a strategic material by the U. In , the U. Under heat and pressure, the powder can be used to create strong, lightweight items ranging from armour plating to components for the aerospace, transport, and chemical processing industries.
The processing of titanium metal occurs in four major steps:  reduction of titanium ore into "sponge", a porous form; melting of sponge, or sponge plus a master alloy to form an ingot; primary fabrication, where an ingot is converted into general mill products such as billet , bar, plate , sheet , strip, and tube ; and secondary fabrication of finished shapes from mill products. Because it cannot be readily produced by reduction of titanium dioxide ,  titanium metal is obtained by reduction of TiCl 4 with magnesium metal in the Kroll process.
The complexity of this batch production in the Kroll process explains the relatively high market value of titanium,  despite the Kroll process being less expensive than the Hunter process.
In this process, the chlorine gas is passed over a red-hot mixture of rutile or ilmenite in the presence of carbon. A more recently developed batch production method, the FFC Cambridge process ,  reduces titanium dioxide electrochemically in molten calcium chloride to produce titanium metal as either powder or sponge. Common titanium alloys are made by reduction.
For example, cuprotitanium rutile with copper added is reduced , ferrocarbon titanium ilmenite reduced with coke in an electric furnace , and manganotitanium rutile with manganese or manganese oxides are reduced.
About fifty grades of titanium alloys are designed and currently used, although only a couple of dozen are readily available commercially. Those four vary in tensile strength as a function of oxygen content, with grade 1 being the most ductile lowest tensile strength with an oxygen content of 0. Titanium powder is manufactured using a flow production process known as the Armstrong process  that is similar to the batch production Hunter process. A stream of titanium tetrachloride gas is added to a stream of molten sodium metal ; the products sodium chloride salt and titanium particles is filtered from the extra sodium.
Titanium is then separated from the salt by water washing. Both sodium and chlorine are recycled to produce and process more titanium tetrachloride. All welding of titanium must be done in an inert atmosphere of argon or helium to shield it from contamination with atmospheric gases oxygen, nitrogen , and hydrogen. Commercially pure flat product sheet, plate can be formed readily, but processing must take into account of the tendency of the metal to springback.
This is especially true of certain high-strength alloys. Titanium is used in steel as an alloying element ferro-titanium to reduce grain size and as a deoxidizer, and in stainless steel to reduce carbon content. Powdered titanium is used in pyrotechnics as a source of bright-burning particles.
TiO 2 pigment is chemically inert, resists fading in sunlight, and is very opaque: it imparts a pure and brilliant white colour to the brown or grey chemicals that form the majority of household plastics. Because titanium alloys have high tensile strength to density ratio,  high corrosion resistance ,  fatigue resistance, high crack resistance,  and ability to withstand moderately high temperatures without creeping , they are used in aircraft, armour plating, naval ships, spacecraft, and missiles.
In fact, about two thirds of all titanium metal produced is used in aircraft engines and frames. The Lockheed A and its development the SR "Blackbird" were two of the first aircraft frames where titanium was used, paving the way for much wider use in modern military and commercial aircraft.
An estimated 59 metric tons , pounds are used in the Boeing , 45 in the Boeing , 18 in the Boeing , 32 in the Airbus A , 18 in the Airbus A , and 12 in the Airbus A The Airbus A may use 77 metric tons, including about 11 tons in the engines. An early use in jet engines was for the Orenda Iroquois in the s.
Because titanium is resistant to corrosion by sea water, it is used to make propeller shafts, rigging, and heat exchangers in desalination plants ;  heater-chillers for salt water aquariums, fishing line and leader, and divers' knives.
Titanium is used in the housings and components of ocean-deployed surveillance and monitoring devices for science and the military. The former Soviet Union developed techniques for making submarines with hulls of titanium alloys  forging titanium in huge vacuum tubes.
Titanium is used in the walls of the Juno spacecraft's vault to shield on-board electronics. Welded titanium pipe and process equipment heat exchangers, tanks, process vessels, valves are used in the chemical and petrochemical industries primarily for corrosion resistance.
Specific alloys are used in oil and gas downhole applications and nickel hydrometallurgy for their high strength e. The pulp and paper industry uses titanium in process equipment exposed to corrosive media, such as sodium hypochlorite or wet chlorine gas in the bleachery. Titanium tetrachloride TiCl 4 , a colorless liquid, is important as an intermediate in the process of making TiO 2 and is also used to produce the Ziegler—Natta catalyst.
Titanium tetrachloride is also used to iridize glass and, because it fumes strongly in moist air, it is used to make smoke screens. Titanium metal is used in automotive applications, particularly in automobile and motorcycle racing where low weight and high strength and rigidity are critical.
Titanium is used in many sporting goods: tennis rackets, golf clubs, lacrosse stick shafts; cricket, hockey, lacrosse, and football helmet grills, and bicycle frames and components.
Although not a mainstream material for bicycle production, titanium bikes have been used by racing teams and adventure cyclists. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.
Download as PDF Printable version. Greek elements hydro- and -gen , ' water -forming'. Beryl , a mineral ultimately from the name of Belur in southern India.
Borax , a mineral from Arabic bawraq. Latin carbo , ' coal '. English soda the symbol Na is derived from New Latin natrium , coined from German Natron , ' natron '. Magnesia , a district of Eastern Thessaly in Greece. Latin silex , ' flint ' originally silicium. New Latin potassa , ' potash ' the symbol K is derived from Latin kalium.
Titans , the sons of the Earth goddess of Greek mythology. Vanadis , an Old Norse name for the Scandinavian goddess Freyja.
Corrupted from magnesia negra ; see Magnesium. English word the symbol Fe is derived from Latin ferrum. German Kobold , ' goblin '.Atomic Number: Atomic Mass: atomic mass units: Number of Protons: Number of Neutrons: Number of Electrons: Melting Point: ° C: Boiling Point: ° C: Titanium is the only element that burns in nitrogen. Titanium is used in fireworks. Common Uses: Mill products such as sheet, plate, bar, wire, forgings and.