After their introduction in the Part I chorus "Glory to God", apart from the solo in "The trumpet shall sound" they are heard only in "Hallelujah" and the final chorus "Worthy is the Lamb".
Although Messiah is not in any particular key, Handel's tonal scheme has been summarised by the musicologist Anthony Hicks as "an aspiration towards D major", the key musically associated with light and glory. As the oratorio moves forward with various shifts in key to reflect changes in mood, D major emerges at significant points, primarily the "trumpet" movements with their uplifting messages. It is the key in which the work reaches its triumphant ending.
For example, the musicologist Rudolf Steglich has suggested that Handel used the device of the "ascending fourth " as a unifying motif ; this device most noticeably occurs in the first two notes of "I know that my Redeemer liveth" and on numerous other occasions.
Nevertheless, Luckett finds this thesis implausible, and asserts that "the unity of Messiah is a consequence of nothing more arcane than the quality of Handel's attention to his text, and the consistency of his musical imagination". From the gentle falling melody assigned to the opening words "Comfort ye" to the sheer ebullience of the "Hallelujah" chorus and the ornate celebratory counterpoint that supports the closing "Amen", hardly a line of text goes by that Handel does not amplify".
The opening Sinfony is composed in E minor for strings, and is Handel's first use in oratorio of the French overture form. Jennens commented that the Sinfony contains "passages far unworthy of Handel, but much more unworthy of the Messiah";  Handel's early biographer Charles Burney merely found it "dry and uninteresting".
The pastoral interlude that follows begins with the short instrumental movement, the Pifa , which takes its name from the shepherd-bagpipers, or pifferari , who played their pipes in the streets of Rome at Christmas time.
The remainder of Part I is largely carried by the soprano in B flat, in what Burrows terms a rare instance of tonal stability. The second Part begins in G minor, a key which, in Hogwood's phrase, brings a mood of "tragic presentiment" to the long sequence of Passion numbers which follows.
The sense of desolation returns, in what Hogwood calls the "remote and barbarous" key of B flat minor, for the tenor recitative "All they that see him". This, as Young points out, is not the climactic chorus of the work, although one cannot escape its "contagious enthusiasm". Commentators have noted that the musical line for this third subject is based on Wachet auf , Philipp Nicolai 's popular Lutheran chorale.
The opening soprano solo in E major, "I know that my Redeemer liveth" is one of the few numbers in the oratorio that has remained unrevised from its original form. Handel's awkward, repeated stressing of the fourth syllable of "incorruptible" may have been the source of the 18th-century poet William Shenstone 's comment that he "could observe some parts in Messiah wherein Handel's judgements failed him; where the music was not equal, or was even opposite , to what the words required".
The reflective soprano solo "If God be for us" originally written for alto quotes Luther 's chorale Aus tiefer Not. It ushers in the D major choral finale: "Worthy is the Lamb", leading to the apocalyptic "Amen" in which, says Hogwood, "the entry of the trumpets marks the final storming of heaven". Many early recordings of individual choruses and arias from Messiah reflect the performance styles then fashionable—large forces, slow tempi and liberal reorchestration.
The first near-complete recording of the whole work with the cuts then customary [n 10] was conducted by Sir Thomas Beecham in It represented an effort by Beecham to "provide an interpretation which, in his opinion, was nearer the composer's intentions", with smaller forces and faster tempi than had become traditional.
In the first recording based on Handel's original scoring was conducted by Hermann Scherchen for Nixa , [n 11] quickly followed by a version, judged scholarly at the time, under Sir Adrian Boult for Decca. They inaugurated a new tradition of brisk, small scale performances, with vocal embellishments by the solo singers. By the end of the s the quest for authenticity had extended to the use of period instruments and historically correct styles of playing them. The first of such versions were conducted by the early music specialists Christopher Hogwood and John Eliot Gardiner The latter employs a chorus of 24 singers and an orchestra of 31 players; Handel is known to have used a chorus of 19 and an orchestra of Several reconstructions of early performances have been recorded: the Dublin version by Scherchen in , and again in , and by Jean-Claude Malgoire in The first published score of , together with Handel's documented adaptations and recompositions of various movements, has been the basis for many performing versions since the composer's lifetime.
Modern performances which seek authenticity tend to be based on one of three 20th-century performing editions. In addition to Mozart's well-known reorchestration, arrangements for larger orchestral forces exist by Goossens and Andrew Davis ; both have been recorded at least once, on the RCA  and Chandos  labels respectively.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Structure of Handel's Messiah. Main article: Messiah Part I. Main article: Messiah Part II.
Air Alto : He was despised. Chorus: Hallelujah. The article is absent from the proper title. Ebenezer Prout pointed out that the edition was published as "F. Mozarts Bearbeitung" — "nach" meaning after rather than in Mozart's arrangement.
Prout noted that a Mozart edition of another Handel work, Alexander's Feast published in accordance with Mozart's manuscript, was printed as "mit neuer Bearbeitung von W. Mozart" "with new arrangement by W.
Both recordings have appeared on other labels in both LP and CD formats. A copyright-free transfer of the version digitized from original vinyl discs by Nixa Records is available on YouTube: part 1 , part 2 , part 3.
Hicks, Anthony In Sadie, Stanley ; Tyrrell, John eds. London: Macmillan. Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved 20 July Grove Music Online. Retrieved 15 June Archived from the original on 8 September Retrieved 5 November Retrieved 16 June British Library. Retrieved 18 May Irish Arts Review — Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 20 May Westminster Abbey. Archived from the original on 13 February The Daily Universal Register. August The Musical Times.
Journal of the Royal Musical Association. Classical Net. Retrieved 11 June Proceedings of the Musical Association, 30th Session — Six days shall work be done, but the seventh day is a Sabbath of solemn rest, holy to the Lord. Whoever does any work on the Sabbath day shall be put to death. He made it known by sending his angel to his servant John,. All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness,.
For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever hears my word and believes him who sent me has eternal life. He does not come into judgment, but has passed from death to life. But a man named Ananias, with his wife Sapphira, sold a piece of property, and with his wife's knowledge he kept back for himself some of the proceeds and brought only a part of it and laid it at the apostles' feet.
While it remained unsold, did it not remain your own? And after it was sold, was it not at your disposal? Why is it that you have contrived this deed in your heart? You have not lied to men but to God. And great fear came upon all who heard of it. I will make Mount Seir a waste and a desolation, and I will cut off from it all who come and go. And I will fill its mountains with the slain.
On your hills and in your valleys and in all your ravines those slain with the sword shall fall. I will make you a perpetual desolation, and your cities shall not be inhabited. Then you will know that I am the Lord. And for your lifeblood I will require a reckoning: from every beast I will require it and from man.
From his fellow man I will require a reckoning for the life of man. Who bore witness to the word of God and to the testimony of Jesus Christ, even to all that he saw. Kill, and devote them to destruction, declares the Lord , and do all that I have commanded you. The noise of battle is in the land, and great destruction! And that night the angel of the Lord went out and struck down , in the camp of the Assyrians.
And when people arose early in the morning, behold, these were all dead bodies. Go up, you baldhead! And two she-bears came out of the woods and tore forty-two of the boys. Answer me, O Lord , answer me, that this people may know that you, O Lord , are God, and that you have turned their hearts back.
And Elijah brought them down to the brook Kishon and slaughtered them there. But you have done evil above all who were before you and have gone and made for yourself other gods and metal images, provoking me to anger, and have cast me behind your back, therefore behold, I will bring harm upon the house of Jeroboam and will cut off from Jeroboam every male, both bond and free in Israel, and will burn up the house of Jeroboam, as a man burns up dung until it is all gone.
Anyone belonging to Jeroboam who dies in the city the dogs shall eat, and anyone who dies in the open country the birds of the heavens shall eat, for the Lord has spoken it. When your feet enter the city, the child shall die. And all Israel shall mourn for him and bury him, for he only of Jeroboam shall come to the grave, because in him there is found something pleasing to the Lord , the God of Israel, in the house of Jeroboam.
Send them out of my sight, and let them go! And I will make them a horror to all the kingdoms of the earth because of what Manasseh the son of Hezekiah, king of Judah, did in Jerusalem. And they carried the ark of God on a new cart and brought it out of the house of Abinadab, which was on the hill.
And Uzzah and Ahio, the sons of Abinadab, were driving the new cart, with the ark of God, and Ahio went before the ark. And David and all the house of Israel were making merry before the Lord , with songs and lyres and harps and tambourines and castanets and cymbals. And when they came to the threshing floor of Nacon, Uzzah put out his hand to the ark of God and took hold of it, for the oxen stumbled.
And the anger of the Lord was kindled against Uzzah, and God struck him down there because of his error, and he died there beside the ark of God. And he struck some of the men of Beth-shemesh, because they looked upon the ark of the Lord.
He struck seventy men of them, and the people mourned because the Lord had struck the people with a great blow. And to whom shall he go up away from us? And the men of Israel turned back against the people of Benjamin and struck them with the edge of the sword, the city, men and beasts and all that they found.
And all the towns that they found they set on fire. But the people of Dan took what Micah had made, and the priest who belonged to him, and they came to Laish, to a people quiet and unsuspecting, and struck them with the edge of the sword and burned the city with fire. And there was no deliverer because it was far from Sidon, and they had no dealings with anyone. It was in the valley that belongs to Beth-rehob. Then they rebuilt the city and lived in it. To be sure, there are no doubt many things pertaining to the coming of the Lord that will not be understood until he makes His glorious appearance compare 2 Nephi These are they who are led, prompted, and empowered by the language and logic and learning of holy writ.
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